Radiometry Upper and Lower UAVs

The upper UAV will have upwelling and downwelling solar and long-wave radiation measurements from Kipp & Zonen pyranometers and pyrgeometers, respectively. The sea surface temperature Ts can be measured from the long-wave upwelling and downwelling fluxes, Qlu and Qld, respectively, by


where  is the emissivity of the sea surface, taken as 0.98, and  is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant (Katsaros, 1990).

The solar radiation fluxes are used for cool skin temperature corrections in the TOGA-COARE algorithm, and for giving the solar albedo.